saxena caste belong to which category
[20] Although at that time, prior to the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, they were generally outnumbered by Brahmins in the Hindu royal courts of northern India, some among these Kayasthas wrote eulogies for the kings. [25] Historically they produced prominent warriors and also held positions such as Deshpandes and Gadkaris (fort holder, an office similar to that of a castellan. [37] Several religious councils and institutions have subsequently stated the varna status of Chitraguptvanshi Kayasthas to be Brahmin[38] and CKPs as Kshatriya.[39][40][41]. [28], Earlier, in Bihar, in 1811-12, Botanist and Zoologist, Francis Buchanan had recorded the Kayastha of that region as "pure shudra" and accordingly kept them at the par with other producer caste groups like goldsmiths, Ahirs, Kurmis and the Koeris. [6], The Chitraguptavanshi Kayasthas of Northern India are named thus because they have a myth of origin that says they descend from the 12 sons of the Hindu god Chitragupta, the product of his marriages to Devi Shobhavati and Devi Nandini. General caste list in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, west Bengal, Orissa, tamilnadu, Punjab other state of India. After the Muslim conquest of India, they mastered Persian, which became the official language of the Mughal courts. Sharma further .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, Noticing brahmanic names with a large number of modern Bengali Kayastha cognomens in several early epigraphs discovered in Bengal, some scholars have suggested that there is a considerable brahmana element in the present day Kayastha community of Bengal. [26] Traditionally, the CKPs have the upanayana (thread ceremony) and have been granted the rights to study the vedas and perform vedic rituals along with the Brahmins. Geni requires JavaScript! [24], In Maharashtra, Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus (CKP) claim descent from the warrior Chandrasen. [33][full citation needed][34], In post-Raj assessments, the Bengali Kayasthas, alongside Bengali Brahmins, have been described as the "highest Hindu castes". [5] The suffix -vanshi is Sanskrit and translates as belonging to a particular family dynasty. [2], The first historical reference to the term kayastha, not necessarily related to the modern community, comes from a Mathura inscription of the Kushan emperor Vasudeva I, dated to around 171-172 CE, which records the gift of an image of the Buddha by a Kayastha Śramaṇa. [13], During the British Raj, Kayasthas continued to proliferate in public administration, qualifying for the highest executive and judicial offices open to Indians. Sahani caste belongs to one of the above 4 categories. These groups are aligning themselves with various political parties to gain political and economic advantages; by 2009 they were demanding 33 percent reservation in government jobs. [6] In some of the Sanskrit works of Kshemendra, in the Vikramankadevacharita of Bilhana and in Kalhana's historical chronicle known as the Rajatarangini ("River of Kings"), written in the early-medieval Kashmir, the term kayastha may have been used to denote the members of bureaucracy ranging from Gṛhakṛtyamahattama (the chief secretary in the charge of home affairs) to the Asvaghasa-kayastha (officer in charge of the fodder for horses), whose principal duty, besides carrying on the general administration of the state, consisted in the collection of revenue and taxes. In earlier times there was no rigidity in caste system. in the suits originating in the Bihari and Doabi heartlands rulings that Kayasthas were of twice-born status were more likely. In modern times, some have attained success in politics, as well as in the arts and various professional fields. [18] This classification has increasingly led to feelings of unease and resentment among the Kayasthas, who believe that the communities that benefit from reservation are gaining political power and employment opportunities at their expense. Thus, the Kayasthas were accorded a dual caste, Brahmin (learned)/Kshatriya (warrior). According to Saxena tradition, their name is from Sanskrit sakhisena ‘friend of the army’, a title awarded to them by the kings of Srinagar. Saxena is a South Asian and Indian surname. Für nähere Informationen zur Nutzung Ihrer Daten lesen Sie bitte unsere Datenschutzerklärung und Cookie-Richtlinie. Of the various regional Kayastha communities it was those of north India who remained most aligned to their role of scribes, whereas in other areas there became more emphasis on commerce. Closer to Bengal country, though, the legal rulings tended to assign a shudra status. This was based on their perceived refined culture, prestige and education. Thou hast been conceived in my mind (Chitra) and in secrecy (gupta), thy name shall also be Chitragupta.” Brahma then enjoined him to dispense justice and punish those who violated the dharma (duties). So there is every probability that a number of brahmana families were mixed up with members of other varnas in forming the present Kayastha and Vaidya communities of Bengal. Some specialised as scribes, keepers of public records and accounts, and administrators of the state. A. Bengali Kayasthas had been the dominant landholding caste prior to the Muslim conquest, and continued this role under Muslim rule. According to Saxena tradition, their name is from Sanskrit sakhisena ‘friend of the army’, a title awarded to them by the kings of Srinagar. There are already 1,033 users and 4,104 genealogy profiles with the Saxena surname on Geni. सवर्ण जाती की लिस्ट According to Merriam-Webster, the word Kāyastha is probably formed from the Sanskrit kāya (body), and the suffix -stha (standing, being in). Some specialised as scribes, keepers of public records and accounts, and administrators of the state. Other Backward Class (OBC) is a collective term used by the Government of India to classify castes which are educationally or socially disadvantaged. kayastha. The Kayastha along with the Bhumihars were first among the shudras to attain the recognition as "upper caste" leaving the other aspirational castes to aspire for the same. This was reflected in Raj era court rulings, with Hayden Bellenoit concluding from an analysis of those that. [32][clarification needed] Lord Brahma went into meditation for 11, 000 years and when he opened his eyes he saw a man holding pen and ink-pot in his hands and a sword girdled to his waist. Indian (northern states): Hindu (Kayasth) name from one of the subgroups of the Kayasth community. B. Razia Akter Banu writes that, partly because of Muslim sultans' satisfaction with them as technocrats, many Bengali Kayasthas in the administration became zamindars and jagirdars. Daten über Ihr Gerät und Ihre Internetverbindung, darunter Ihre IP-Adresse, Such- und Browsingaktivität bei Ihrer Nutzung der Websites und Apps von Verizon Media. Dazu gehört der Widerspruch gegen die Verarbeitung Ihrer Daten durch Partner für deren berechtigte Interessen. [28] The last completed census of the British Raj (1931) classified them as a "upper caste", i.e. Originally the professions of Kayastha (scribe) and Vaidya (physician) were not restricted and could be followed by people of different varnas including the brahmanas. [19], At least some Chitraguptavanshi subcastes seem to have formed by the 11th or 12th centuries, evidenced by various names being used to describe them in inscriptions. Sie können Ihre Einstellungen jederzeit ändern. General Categories List in different state of India. However, many of these adopted Vaishnavism in the aim to become Kshatriya. Political scientist U. Even where the shudra designation was adjudged, the Raj courts appear to have sometimes recognised that the Bengali Kayasthas were degraded from an earlier kshatriya status due to intermarrying with both shudras and slaves('dasa') which resulted in the common Bengali Kayastha surname of 'Das'. [31], The Raj era rulings were based largely upon the theories of Herbert Hope Risley, who had conducted extensive studies on castes and tribes of the Bengal Presidency. According to William Rowe, the Kayasthas of Bengal, Bombay and the United Provinces repeatedly challenged this classification by producing a flood of books, pamphlets, family histories and journals to pressurise the government to recognise them as kshatriya and to reform the caste practices in the directions of sanskritisation and westernisation. [3] The term also finds mention in an inscription of the Gupta emperor Kumaragupta I, dated to 442 CE, in which prathama-kāyastha (chief officer) is used as an administrative designation. Yahoo ist Teil von Verizon Media. In 1911, for example, Bengali Kayasthas and Bengali Brahmins owned 40% of all the Indian-owned mills, mines and factories in Bengal. Indeed, Muslim rulers had from a very early time confirmed the Kayasthas in their ancient role as landholders and political intermediaries. In 1901 Bihar census, Kayasthas of the area were classified along with Brahmins and Rajputs in Bihar as “other castes of twice-born rank”[30] According to Arun Sinha, there was a strong current since the end of 19th century among Shudras of Bihar to change their status in caste hierarchy and break the monopoly of bipolar elite of Brahmins and Rajputs of having "dvija" status. [4] The Yājñavalkya Smṛti, also from the Gupta era, and the Vishnu Smriti describe kayasthas as record keepers and accountants. Thus, particularly since the 1990 report of the Mandal Commission on reservation, Kayastha organisations have been active in areas such as Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Bengal and Orissa. [21][22], In eastern India, Bengali Kayasthas are believed to have evolved from a class of officials into a caste between the 5th/6th centuries and 11th/12th centuries, its component elements being putative Kshatriyas and mostly Brahmins. The education and economic advancement made by some of the former Shudra castes enabled them to seek the higher prestige and varna status. [14][page needed], Bengali Kayasthas took on the role occupied by merchant castes in other parts of India and profited from business contacts with the British. Rowe's opinion has been challenged, with claims that it is based on "factual and interpretative errors", and criticised for making "unquestioned assumptions" about the Kayastha sanskritisation and westernisation movement. Dwija,[29] and the final British Raj law case involving their varna in 1926 determined them to be Kshatriya. Damit Verizon Media und unsere Partner Ihre personenbezogenen Daten verarbeiten können, wählen Sie bitte 'Ich stimme zu.' It is one of several official classifications of the population of India, along with Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (SCs and STs). [35] After the Muslim conquest of India, they absorbed remnants of Bengal's old Hindu ruling dynasties—including the Sena, Pala, Chandra, and Varman—and, in this way, became the region's surrogate kshatriya or "warrior" class. [27], As the Kayasthas are a non-cohesive group with regional differences rather than a single caste, their position in the Hindu varna system of ritual classification has not been uniform. Please enable JavaScript in your browser's settings to use this part of Geni. aus oder wählen Sie 'Einstellungen verwalten', um weitere Informationen zu erhalten und eine Auswahl zu treffen. Dies geschieht in Ihren Datenschutzeinstellungen. Muslim Kayasthas of India by Jahanara KK Publications, Sananda Lal Ghosh,(1980), Mejda, Self-Realization Fellowship, p.3, Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent, Jagannath Shankarseth Sanskrit Scholarship, "Mobility in the Nineteenth-century Caste System", "Devdutt Pattanaik: Descendants of Chitragupta", "Interview with Srila Prabhupada's Grand-Nephew - Sankarsan Prabhu", International Society for Krishna Consciousness,, Wikipedia extended-confirmed-protected pages, Articles with incomplete citations from April 2020, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from April 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2020, Articles with incomplete citations from May 2020, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 October 2020, at 16:06.


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