Opposite of UNDERSHOOT.
UNDERCARRIAGE - The landing gear of a land-based aircraft, including struts, frames, and wheels.
Pitot Tube – A small device located on the front outside edge of an airfoil, used to measure air pressure. Radar Air Traffic Control Facility (RATCF) (Navy/FAA) Useful Load – The weight of the items that can be taken out of the aircraft, including fuel, passengers, cargo, pilots, etc. Proponents claim that airplanes lose air speed when turning upwind, while opponents (and the laws of physics) argue that an airplane, like a boat in a river whose speed is only relative to the water and not the shore, is unaffected within the movement of an air mass and that it loses only ground speed. FAR Part 103 - Ultralight Vehicles Adiabatic Lapse Rate – The rate at which temperature changes due to increasing and decreasing altitude, under conditions of thermal equilibrium. TAS - True Air Speed. CLASS G AIRSPACE (Uncontrolled Airspace) - Airspace not designated as Class A, B, C, D or E CONTROLLED AIRSPACE. HORSEPOWER - The motive energy required to raise 550# one foot in one second, friction disregarded. Rated one to five, with the first figure for clearness and the second second for loudness. Contrail – A streak of condensed water vapor in the air due to the heat produced by aircraft engines at high altitudes.
Fuselage – The central portion of an aircraft, which is intended to house the flight crew, passengers, and cargo. UPWIND TURN - Long a point of contest among pilots, there is in reality no such thing as far as the airplane is concerned. MAGNETIC COURSE - COMPASS COURSE ± deviation. g or G see LOAD FACTOR QAR – Quick Access Recorder – An airborne flight recorder that provides quick and easy access to raw flight data through a USB or cellular network.
TAILDRAGGER see CONVENTIONAL GEAR
VLO = Max Landing Gear Operation Speed
ARM - In aircraft weight and balance, as well as load distribution, it is the distance from the CENTER OF GRAVITY (c/g) to some point. FRISE AILERON - A type of aileron that has a beveled leading edge projecting beyond its inset hinges.
French: aileron small wing, diminutive of aile, from Latin: ala, wing. Pilot in Command (PIC) – The designated individual that is responsible for safe aircraft operations during flight. LIFT - The force exerted on the top of a moving airfoil as a low-pressure area [vacuum] that causes a wingform to rise.
A. FIN - The fixed part of a vertical airfoil that controls the yaw of an aircraft; the movable part being the RUDDER. MARKER BEACON see RADIO NAVIGATION
Controlled airspace is a generic term that covers Class A, B, C, D, and E airspace.
The information is constantly updated and designed for mass spreading of relevant information, which is particularly useful at busy airports. AUTO-ROTATION - Automatic rotation of rotary blades from a helicopter in an unpowered glide or the forward movement of an autogyro. Aviation related terms and definitions used in association with civil flight obtained from the Code of Federal Regulations, Federal Aviation Regulations, and many other sources (general abbreviations and those specific to Aerofiles can be found on our Codes page). FLOATPLANE - A water-based aircraft with one or more mounted pontoons, as differentiated from a hulled SEAPLANE [Flying Boat], but often used generically. DEWIZ see AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE. Popular use in SAILPLANES. FAR Part 135 - Air Taxi Operators and Commercial Operators A ground-based navigation aid transmitting very high-frequency (VHF) navigation signals 360° in azimuth, on radials oriented from MAGNETIC NORTH. DOPE - Preservative and pigmented coloring for fabric aircraft covering and paints, generally nitrate lacquer but generically used to denote all early shellac and coal-tar mixtures on up to present-day acrylics. Mach or m. - A number representing the ratio of the speed of an object to the speed of sound in the surrounding air or medium in which it is moving.
FLAP - A movable, usually hinged AIRFOIL set in the trailing edge of an aircraft wing, designed to increase LIFT or DRAG by changing the CAMBER of the wing or used to slow an aircraft during landing by increasing lift.
TRIKE - Nickname for a weight-shift-control aircraft, such as a paraglider.
FLIGHT ENVELOPE - An aircraft's performance limits, specifically the curves of speed plotted against other variables to indicate the limits of speed, altitude, and acceleration that a particular aircraft cannot safely exceed. Usually found on delta-wing aircraft, it can be moved in the same direction on either side of the aircraft to obtain longitudinal control, or differentially to obtain lateral control.
The density altitude is considered to be the pressure altitude adjusted for a non-standard temperature.
METAR – A pilot weather report delivered on a continuous basis.
TURBOJET - An aircraft having a jet engine in which the energy of the jet operates a turbine that in turn operates the air compressor. Primarily single-occupant vehicles, although some two-place vehicles are authorized for training purposes.
There are different types of approaches, depending on whether the pilot is flying VFR or IFR. ILS - Instrument Landing System. HIGH-SPEED STALL - Any stall made to occur at more than 1g, such as pulling out of a dive or while turning.
GROUND EFFECT - Increased lift generated by the interaction between a lift system and the ground when an aircraft is within a wingspan distance above the ground.
AGL – (Above Ground Level) – The vertical distance measured between the aircraft and a specific land mass. Originated with lake-based floating homes of the original German Zeppelins in which they were "hung" from cables, which explains the erroneous, oft-seen spelling of "hanger." MAGNETIC COMPASS - The most common liquid-type compass, capable of calibration to compensate for magnetic influences within the aircraft. Usually a HIGH-SPEED or LOOP ANTENNA - A circular radio antenna, either in the open or in a streamlined, teardrop housing, remotely turned 360° to fine-tune a station in league with other radio-directive devices. FIVE-BY-FIVE (5x5) - In radio jargon, affirms that a radioed transmission was received as clear and loud.
VFR ON TOP - Flight in which a cloud ceiling exists but modified VISUAL FLIGHT RULES are in effect if the aircraft travels above the cloud layer. The latter spelling is a trademark of the Autogiro Corporation. GROUNDSPEED - The actual speed that an aircraft travels over the groundits "shadow speed"; it combines the aircraft's AIRSPEED and the wind's speed relative to the aircraft's direction of flight. AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE (ADIZ) - The area of airspace over land or water, extending upward from the surface, within which the ready identification, the location, and the control of aircraft are required in the interest of national security. FAIRING - An added streamlining structure or auxiliary member, most often of light metal, whose only purpose is to reduce drag.
Similar to VFR.
FBO - Fixed-Base Operator. Mean Sea Level (MSL) – The average level of the surface an ocean used as a basis for vertical measurements. DZUS FASTENER - ("Zoose") Very singular to aircraft, a patented slotted screw that binds to a wire for fast release and securing of cowlings and inspection plates, requiring no special tool other than a quarter coin. GAP - The distance between two adjacent wings of a biplane or multiplane.
AIRFOILs do not "float" on air, as is often assumedlike a boat hull floats on waterbut are "pulled up" [lifted] by low air pressures trying to equalize.
Hand-off – The action taken by ATC to transfer radar identification of an aircraft to another controller. SECONDARY STALL - Any stall resulting from pulling back too soon and too hard while recovering from any other stall.
The aircraft that a commuter operates has 30 or fewer passenger seats and a payload capability of 7,500# or less. DRIFT - The angle between the heading of an aircraft and its Track [flight path] over the ground as affected by winds. Thrust – A force which opposes aircraft drag and is created by the engines to propel the aircraft forward. SLIPSTREAM - The flow of air driven backward by a propeller or downward by a rotor.
FAIRING - An added streamlining structure or auxiliary member, most often of light metal, whose only purpose is to reduce drag. SESQUI-WING - A lesser-span additional wingform, generally placed below the main planes of an aircraft, generally a biplane.
For computations, arms measured forward from the c/g are positive (+n) and those measured aft of the c/g are negtive (-n). UNDERSHOOT - To land short of a runwway or planned landing spot.
ILS – Instrument Landing System – A system that uses radio waves to assist landings in IFR conditions.
CONSTANT-SPEED PROPELLER - A hydraulically-controlled propeller that governs an engine at its optimum speed by the blade pitch being increased or decreased automatically. AUTOMATIC TERMINAL INFORMATION SERVICE (ATIS) - Continuous broadcast of recorded non-control information in selected terminal areas, to improve controller effectiveness and to relieve frequency congestion by automating repetitive transmissions of essential but routine information.
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