astronomers call a ball of matter that is contracting to become a star
As you spin really fast, you are pushed against the wall so strongly that you cannot possibly fall toward the center of the cylinder. A neutron star also has powerful gravity pulling it together, but a force between the neutrons, caused by a quantum mechanical effect known as degeneracy pressure, pushes the particles apart, counteracting the gravitational force. The basic idea of triggered star formation is this: when a massive star is formed, it emits a large amount of ultraviolet radiation and ejects high-speed gas in the form of a stellar wind. Molecular clouds typically contain regions of higher density called clumps, which in turn contain several even-denser cores of gas and dust, each of which may become a star. This rate of hydrogen use means that eventually the Sun (and all other stars) will run out of central fuel. The accumulation of material halts when a protostar develops a strong stellar wind, leading to jets of material being observed coming from the star. Recent observations suggest that T Tauri stars may actually be stars in a middle stage between protostars and hydrogen-fusing stars such as the Sun. It is the force of gravity that produces this drastic collapse. The disk can be detected directly when observed at infrared wavelengths or when it is seen silhouetted against a bright background (Figure 10). At the heart of the nebula is the Trapezium cluster, which includes four very bright stars that provide much of the energy that causes the nebula to glow so brightly. The total quantity of molecular gas is about 200,000 times the mass of the Sun. 30.4 The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. The core accretion model. (credit “HH 47”: modification of work by NASA, ESA, and P. Hartigan (Rice University); credit “HH 1 and HH 2: modification of work by J. Hester, WFPC2 Team, NASA). Video, Trump supporter replaces neighbour's stolen Biden sign, What does developing a Covid-19 vaccine look like? Many stars, however, are members of binary or triple systems, where several stars are born together. Figure 3: Orion Nebula. Figure 9: Outflows from Protostars. Direct observations of this collapse to higher density are nearly impossible for two reasons. Figure 1: Pillars of Dust and Dense Globules in M16. Once almost all of the available material has been accreted and the central protostar has reached nearly its final mass, it is given a special name: it is called a T Tauri star, named after one of the best studied and brightest members of this class of stars, which was discovered in the constellation of Taurus. The pattern of the hunter is easy to recognize by the conspicuous “belt” of three stars that mark his waist. In other words, if the object can turn its material around a smaller circle, it can move that material more quickly—like a figure skater spinning more rapidly as she brings her arms in tight to her body. If it is a very large star, it collapses to form a black hole, an object with such strong gravitational force that not even light can escape its grasp. .css-gw44ni-IconContainer{display:inline-block;height:1em;width:1em;vertical-align:-0.125em;margin-right:0.25em;}playWell, that was wild. During the time a dense core is contracting to become a true star, but before the fusion of protons to produce helium begins, we call the object a protostar. When the wind first starts up, the disk of material around the star’s equator blocks the wind in its direction. ​The wind from a forming star will ultimately sweep away the material that remains in the obscuring envelope of dust and gas, leaving behind the naked disk and protostar, which can then be seen with visible light. "It is a challenge for us to determine what this is," he told BBC News. In order to form a star—that is, a dense, hot ball of matter capable of starting nuclear reactions deep within—we need a typical core of interstellar atoms and molecules to shrink in radius and increase in density by a factor of nearly 1020.


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